A collection on 'Tuhao' in English
#BBCtrending: Tuhao and the rise of Chinese bling
31 October 2013 Last updated at 12:07 GMT
A new word has suddenly become wildly popular in China - "tuhao" - which loosely translated means "nouveau riche". There have been more than 100 million references to the word "tuhao" on social media since early September.
Chinese puts in a good word for the English language
Updated: 2013-11-02 00:37
By JIN ZHU in Beijing and CHEN JIA in San Francisco (China Daily)
Words of Chinese origin are playing a key role in driving the ongoing globalization of English, experts in both languages say.
"The fact that some 300 million Chinese people are now studying or have studied English means the important impact of Chinese on the language can't be denied," said Paul J.J. Payack, president and chief analyst at Global Language Monitor.
The consultancy, based in Austin in the US state of Texas, documents, analyzes and tracks trends in language usage worldwide, with a particular emphasis on English.
It says some 10,000 words are added to the English language annually, with about 1.83 billion people using English as their native, second, business or technical language.
But the global figure was only about 250 million in 1960, with English-speakers mainly located in Britain and its Commonwealth of former colonies, as well as the United States.
"It's estimated that a new English word is created every 98 minutes," Payack said.
"One example of a word used in English that originated from Chinese that has appeared recently is chengguan (city patrol officer). A quick Google search results in nearly a million citations, far in excess of our minimum number of required citations.''
The Oxford English Dictionary, which waits 10 years before entering a word to ensure it has "staying power", now has about 1,000 words of Chinese origin, such as taikonaut.
In China, taikonaut refers to a person trained by a human spaceflight program to command, pilot, or serve as a spacecraft crew member.
"It's estimated that Chinese, one of the prime drivers of the globalization of the English language, will continue its influence throughout the 21st century," Payack said.
In August, The Wall Street Journal used the term dama, which is Chinese pinyin for "big mother", to describe the middle-aged Chinese women driving the global gold market.
In a video report, it said it is largely because of dama that China can compete with India as the world's largest gold consumer. Many Chinese people saw the use of dama as evidence that the more advanced a country becomes, the more influential its language is.
Wei Chongxin, dean of Beijing Foreign Studies University's School of Chinese Language and Literature, said he believes such influence is rooted in China's growing global clout.
"When more native English speakers come to learn more about China and have closer relations with the country in daily life, it's normal to see the Chinese and English languages infiltrate with each other's words," he said.
The convergence of the main languages of global powers has many precedents in history, including the Greek and Roman conquests and the unification of ancient China. In more recent times, the languages of Spain, Portugal, the Netherlands, France and Britain dominated many of the colonies they established from the 16th to 19th centuries, according to GLM.
However, compared with the impact of English on the Chinese language in the past, experts say Chinese still has a limited influence on English.
"One reason for the difficulty in translation between English and Chinese is that they stemmed from entirely different language families," Payack said.
He added that English, with Proto-Indo-European roots has some kinship with Greek, Latin, Celtic, the Romance languages (which include French and Italian), Polish and Russian, and even Kurdish, Farsi and Sanskrit. Meanwhile, Mandarin stems from the Proto-Sino-Tibetan family of languages.
"This makes the contemporary mixing, melding or mash-up of English and Mandarin even more interesting and complex, which is one reason why some 'Chinglish' phrasing strikes outsiders as confusing and even amusing," Payack said.
But Han Baocheng, a language professor at Beijing Foreign Studies University, said the use of "Chinglish" phrases cannot be regarded as Chinese words having an influence on the English language.
"At present, most of the limited number of new words with Chinese origins that have been regarded as entering the English language are those that cannot find proper words in English to express the original meanings in Chinese," he said.
But Wei Chongxin, who is also a senior professional in cross-cultural communication, said such mixing of the two languages provides Chinese- and English-learners with an opportunity to improve their studies and make them easier.
"Moreover, because the two languages can absorb from each other, both can be more vigorous and have a wider range of users," he said.
Lisa Hoffman graduated from the University of International Business and Economics in Beijing this year and now works at Guinness World Records in the city.
The 24-year-old Canadian can speak Mandarin fluently.
"Since the two languages are completely different, it's really difficult for foreigners, especially those living overseas, to remember Chinese words," she said.
"For instance, my mom, who can't speak any Chinese, has to remember ni hao (hello) by 'knee' and 'how'," she said. "But she can easily say words with Chinese origins, such as baijiu (liqor), as those words frequently appear in her daily life."
Contact the writer at email@example.com
Oxford Dictionary may add Chinese buzzword 'tuhao'
2013-11-14 13:40 Ecns.cn Web Editor: Yao Lan
(ECNS) -- Emerging Chinese buzzwords including "tuhao (rich people)," "dama (married women between the ages of 40-60)" and "hukou (household registration system)" may make their way into the Oxford English Dictionary in 2014, according to a Beijing Youth Daily report.
"Though emerging Chinese style words like 'tuhao' and 'dama' haven't been officially added to the dictionary, their popularity has impressed us, and we are thinking of including these words in 2014," said an official at the Oxford University Press on Wednesday.
"Commonality and frequency of use are two major considerations before we add new terms to the dictionary," said the official.
New language is constantly evolving and being invented in internet culture. A new piece of slang can pop up in one community, show up on social network platforms and eventually spread the world over.
The term "tuhao" and "dama" have become popular online. "Though these buzzwords have become viral among the public in China, we still need to see if they can hold their vitality in English language and culture before including them in the lexicon," the official added.
A total of 120 Chinese-style words, including "Maotai (茅台)", "Chinglish (中式英语)" and "dim sum (点心)" have been included in the dictionary.
'Tuhao' may end up in English dictionaries
The Chinese hot word "tuhao" may be included in the next edition of Oxford English dictionaries, according to a report in Beijing Youth Daily.
"A lot of media has given attention to the word 'tuhao' which also triggered our interest. Its meaning is quite similar to a new word in English, 'bling', a slang term that refers to flashy, ostentatious or elaborate jewelry and ornamented accessories. If the influence of 'tuhao' keeps rising, we will consider including it in our dictionaries of the 2014 edition", said management authorities at Oxford University Press, the publishers of the dictionaries.
The word "tuhao" dates back to ancient times in China, when it referred to the wealthy or landholders who would bully those beneath them from 1920s to early 1950s. This new usage took off in September this year and is commonly used in the phrase: "Tuhao, let's be friends!"
It can be used to describe anything from China's new wealthy class to gold-coloured iPhones.
"Tuhao" was then introduced on a BBC program last month to refer to the "Chinese bling", which further stirred up discussions among netizens.
The BBC suggested that "its popularity seems to be down to the fact that it encapsulates China's changing society so well - many people sneer at those with wealth, but are secretly jealous".
The Oxford University Press says that a reason for including Chinese hot words, besides the increasing influence of the Chinese language, is that these words are often puns or carry mockery and humor in a way that would be lost in translation.
Words like "hukou" and "lianghui" are also said to convey complicated or specific meanings and loanwords are said to be easier for expression.
The online version of the Oxford English Dictionary is updated on a seasonal basis. The next update is set to take place this December.
New words which were added this September include 'twerking', 'selfie' and words that have been widely used in the media.
About 120 words in Oxford dictionaries have Chinese origins as quoted in the report, such as guanxi, dim sum and Chinglish.
Trending Words in Chinese
Dama refers to middle-aged and elderly ladies in Chinese. Chinese dama drew attention from around the world when they swept the gold market during the decline of gold prices between April and June this year, according to the Wall Street Journal.
Guanggun means bachelor in Chinese. It appeared in a report in the Economist about the overwhelming male population in China which was then quoted in many other media.
Lianghui is a Chinese abbreviation for the annual meetings of the National People's Congress and Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference. The media have widely used the Chinese word in their reports since its meaning is difficult to clarify in English.
Tuhao May End up In Oxford English Dictionary
2013-11-15 19:54:07 CRIENGLISH.com Web Editor: Mao
While millions of Chinese are learning the English language, popular Chinese expressions are making their way into the English lexicon.
China's new buzzword, tuhao, may be in next year's Oxford English Dictionary.
The word caught the attention of the dictionary's editing team after BBC's recent program on influential Chinese words.
Why is tuhao being considered? And what does it mean when more Chinese words are included in an English dictionary?
"Tuhao" literally means "provincial rich", or "uncivilized splendor". [Photo: rayli.com]
OED next goes for big, fat 'tuhao' and 'dama'
China,Human Interest/Society, Fri, 15 Nov 2013
Beijing, Nov 15 (IANS) 'Tuhao', a Chinese word, whose definition is similar to the English word 'bling', may make it to the next year's edition of the Oxford English Dictionary (OED).
"If its (tuhao's) influence continues, it is very likely to appear on our updated list of words," the Shanghai Daily quoted Julie Kleeman, project manager with the OED editing team, as telling the Beijing Youth Daily.
Kleeman said 'tuhao' has some similarities with the English word 'bling' that refers to ostentatious clothing or jewellery.
In Chinese, 'tu' means uncouth and 'hao' means rich and the word 'tuhao' was traditionally used to describe rich people in rural areas who throw their weight around.
But in recent times, the word has been used to describe people who spend money in an irrational manner.
According to the Shanghai Daily report, 'tuhao' "gained credence in September with the launch of Apple's new gold-coloured iPhone, an item loved by China's nouveau riche" and the colour soon came to be known as "tuhao gold".
"The word is now often used by the online community to refer to people who have the cash but lack the class to go with it," the report said.
According to Kleeman, two other Chinese words - 'hukou' and 'dama' - might also make it to the OED next year.
'Hukou' means household registration and came to be commonly used in recent years in connection with corruption cases in China.
'Dama' means middle-aged women, and became popular in the Western media in May this year after a lot of women in China bought record amounts of gold between April and June and became the driving force behind the global gold rush when prices were down.
'Tuhao' may become part of English glossary
By Li Qian (Shanghai Daily) 08:28, November 15, 2013
China’s new buzzword, tuhao, may be in next year’s Oxford English Dictionary.
The word caught the attention of the dictionary’s editing team after BBC’s recent program on influential Chinese words.
“If its influence continues, it is very likely to appear on our updated list of words,” said Julie Kleeman, project manager with the editing team.
Kleeman told the Beijing Youth Daily that tuhao has some similarities with the English word bling, which refers to expensive, ostentatious clothing or jewelry. Both the words have existed for long but later on took a new meaning.
In Chinese, tu means uncouth and hao means rich. It has traditionally been referred to rich people who throw their weight around in China’s rural areas. In recent years, people in the ACG (anime, comic and game) circle borrowed the term to describe those who spend money in an irrational manner.
The word gained credence in September with the launch of Apple’s new gold-colored iPhone, an item loved by China’s nouveau riche. The color became known as “tuhao gold.”
The word is now often used by the online community to refer to people who have the cash but lack the class to go with it.
Kleeman also mentioned two other Chinese words — dama and hukou — which may also make it into the dictionary.
Hukou means household registration in Chinese and has been widely used by Xinhua news agency and China Central Television. It has become a hot word in recent years because of its links with corruption cases.
Dama, meaning middle-aged women, was first used in the Western media by the Wall Street Journal in May when thousands of Chinese women were buying up record number of gold. They were the driving force in the global gold market between April and June when the gold prices had slumped.
Lianghui is another Chinese word that may be included in the dictionary. It is actually a Chinese abbreviation for the National People’s Congress and the National Committee of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference. The domestic media have been using lianghui regularly and overseas media have followed suit.
People can have an “intuitive” grasp of the meanings if they see pinyin, Kleeman said, adding that people avoided using an English word to retain the original meaning.
“We have nearly 120 Chinese-linked words now in Oxford English Dictionary,” she said.
Some of them are: Guanxi, literally meaning “connection,” is the system of social networks and influential relationships which facilitate business and other dealings.
Dim Sum originates from Cantonese dialect and refers to a Chinese dish of small steamed or fried savory dumplings containing various fillings.
Taikonaut is a mix of taikong, meaning outer space, and astronaut.
The new words will be first uploaded on the official website before the dictionaries arrive. The online version is also renewed every three months.
“It at least broke our old rules. It used to take 10 years to include a new word but now we keep the pace with the era,” according to a statement issued by ex-chief-editor John Simpson.
Chinese word for uncouth rich to get into Oxford dictionary
PTI : Beijing, Fri Nov 15 2013, 16:28 hrs
Dama, meaning rich middle-aged women, was first used when thousands of Chinese women began buying record amounts of gold this year. Reuters
China's new buzzwords – "tuhao", meaning uncouth rich people, and "dama", meaning rich middle-aged women - could make their way into the Oxford English Dictionary next year.
"If its influence continues, it is very likely to appear on our updated list of words," Julie Kleeman, project manager with the dictionary's editing team, said about tuhao.
Kleeman told the Beijing Youth Daily that tuhao has some similarities with the English word "bling", which refers to expensive, ostentatious clothing or jewellery.
Both words have existed for long but later on took a new meaning.
In Chinese, "tu" means uncouth and "hao" means rich. It has traditionally been used to refer to rich people who throw their weight around in China's rural areas.
In recent years, people in the anime, comics and game circle borrowed the term to describe those who spend money in an irrational manner.
Tuhao is now often used by the online community to refer to people who have cash but lack the class to go with it. The word gained credence in September with the launch of Apple's new gold-coloured iPhone, an item loved by China's nouveau riche.
The colour became known as "tuhao gold", Shanghai Daily reported.
Kleeman mentioned two other Chinese words - "dama" and "hukou" - which may make it into the dictionary.
Dama, meaning rich middle-aged women, was first used when thousands of Chinese women began buying record amounts of gold this year. They were the driving force in the global gold market between April and June, when prices had slumped.
Hukou means household registration, a serious issue in China, has become a hot word in recent years because of its links with corruption cases.
"We have nearly 120 Chinese-linked words now in the Oxford English Dictionary," Kleeman said. Among them is Guanxi, literally meaning "connection", or the system of social networks and influential relationships that facilitate business and other dealings.
Recycled buzzword tuhao shows changing attitude of newly rich
By Ni Tao， Shanghai Daily, November 18, 2013
"TuHao" is a newly-emerged proper name for Chinese to describe nouveau riches who consume regardless of cost and consequence.
Suppose you are clad from head to toe in name brands.
You wear a Versace shirt underneath a Giorgio Armani jacket. Your Hugo Boss slacks are fastened with a belt from Hermes.
On your wrist is a Vacheron Constantin watch. An LV bag dangles from your shoulder.
You strut on the latest TOD’S ballet flats. All these fashion items are topped off in extravagance with the new golden iPhone in your hand. Then get prepared for making heads turn on the street, and in rare cases, even encouraging someone audacious enough to approach, circle his arm around your shoulder, and say, “tuhao, let’s be friends!”
Until recently, tuhao wasn’t the favored word to greet those Chinese fond of displaying wealth.
Literally translated as “rustically rich,” it became a popular substitute for nouveau riche virtually overnight.
It seems that the phrase tuhao has colonized the Internet since early September, as there are references to it here and there all over cyberspace, especially in chat rooms and web forums.
The phrase owes its popularity to the online gaming community, where players use it to mock fellow gamers who buy expensive virtual “equipment” to compensate for their mediocre skills.
Tuhao quickly caught on as a buzzword in social media.
As it gained traction, tuhao replaced nouveau riche in describing, unflatteringly, those bling-bling Chinese who shop till they drop overseas but hardly have any class or sophistication to show for their conspicuous consumption.
Evolution of neologism
The rise of tuhao as a new social class has attracted media such as the BBC to probe the evolution of the neologism.
In fact, tuhao isn’t a new invention, but has fairly recent and revolutionary origins.
During the land reform era in the 1950s, tuhao specifically referred to the landlords and gentry that bullied those beneath them, as BBC reported.
So this word often evokes the unsavory image of a despicable landlord mercilessly crushing his social inferiors.
The redux of tuhao is notable in the sense that the term has been largely stripped of its political connotations, although the negative undertone remains culturally.
Members of the Chinese online community have an uncanny ability to find new usages for old language, and for tuhao, they have adapted it in a way that no longer encapsulates the antagonistic, class-struggle view of the wealthy, but suggests more of a love-hate relationship.
Still, tuhaos are sneered at for their loud manners and gaudy tastes, but that very disparagement is usually tinged with light-hearted humor and jealousy.
Nowadays, whenever someone draws attention by mindless flaunting of fancy purchases online, he or she usually gets called a tuhao, to be followed, at times, by the catchphrase “let’s be friends!”
Besides placing themselves at the pointy end of people’s ire, the clan of tuhao is also stoking such feelings as envy, jealousy, self-mockery as well as aspirations to join their ranks.
My personal experience
I have experienced those feelings from time to time.
As an amateur saxophone player, I often come across people online showing off their vintage Selmer Mark VI, a coveted horn that could cost as much as 100,000 yuan (US$6,250) if it comes with the best serial numbers.
My fingers ache to type tuhao at the sight of those beauties, only to find there already are dozens of the same scornful remarks that precede my proposed comment.
From nouveau riche and “coal boss” to tuhao, the coinage of terms to label, mock, and denigrate the upper crust has demonstrated the traditional Chinese derision of getting rich yet staying crass, which is a good indicator that Chinese remain true to their ancestors’ philosophy of moderation, despite how consumerist society has become. Naked displays of extravagance still are cultural anathema.
But the partial endorsement of tuhao also signifies a resignation to the hard reality of a highly unequal society, where the gap between rich and poor is yawning. In some sense, the slogan “tuhao, let’s be friends!” is reflective of the attitude of “if you cannot beat them, then join them.”
Resentment and hatred of the rich has long been said to be a dangerous undercurrent in China, with the potential of causing social unrest. But the peaceful emergence of tuhao and similar buzzwords points to a contrary view — that the undercurrent may not be necessarily murderous.
Rather than targeting the rich with a knife, people have taken up a cultural weapon to poke fun at their social betters, and maybe also at their own financial desperation. And deep inside some may even envy tuhaos for their success and wealth.
Birth of neo-tuhao
Recently, there have been interpretations online of what constitutes the 10 criteria of neo-tuhao. The 10 criteria include substituting Buddha pearls for gold chains, wearing linen garments and cloth shoes rather than suits and ties, and riding a bike instead of driving a Mercedez.
The criteria vary across regions. The ones listed above apply to Beijing and Shanghai.
While it’s easy to laugh it off as simply a joke, talk of the new tuhao actually embodies the hope for qualities lacking in some uncouthly rich Chinese. Of course, there is no guarantee that an affluent man wearing Buddha pearls and chanting incantations is humbled by religious faith and genuinely espouses modesty.
However, no matter how oxymoronic and pretentious the neo-tuhao standard is, it indicates approval of identification with something more positive and healthier and the desire to distance oneself from the crass paleo-tuhao.
The intriguing thing is that the majority of those asked online about their association flatly reply that they don’t qualify as neo-tuhao. Apparently the labeling game is taken to a higher level than many can reach.
For astute observers, new buzzwords that pop up regularly are a barometer of changes in mass psyche.
Adaptation of tuhao as a legacy of the revolutionary era hints at the increasingly clear-cut stratification in China.
Tuhao has come back with a vengeance. It sarcastically captures the social fault lines that underlie public discourse. Its bling will likely glitter for some time to come.
Dama (Aunt) Tuhao (Tyrant) hot words into English boarded the BBC
Some experts said recently in the English language, Chinese growing influence of English Oxford English Dictionary currently contains about 1,000 or so words containing Chinese origin British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) recently also dedicated to Tuhao (Tyrant word made a show. located in Texas, Chairman of the Global Language Monitor, said Paul Payack, Chinese influence throughout the 21st century will continue.
Oxford English Dictionary contains
Nearly a thousand Chinese word origins
'Three hundred million Chinese people are learning or have learned English, this means that Chinese influence on English is no denying the fact that' in Texas, USA Global Language Monitor President Paul Payack recent interview said.
'For example, the recent emergence of a word with Chinese origins is chengguan (urban). Google search there are nearly 100 million times in reference to far beyond our bodies requires new words appearing at least cited,' he said.
The agency data show an annual increase of about 10,000 English words is currently about 1.83 billion people worldwide use of English, including native language, second language users as well as for commercial or technical terms. 'Expected every 98 minutes a new English word was created, 'Payack said.
Oxford English Dictionary currently contains about 1,000 or so words containing Chinese origin, such taikonaut (Chinese astronauts). Payack that Chinese English as a key driver of globalization, its influence throughout the 21st century will continue .
This year, the Wall Street Journal specifically use 'dama' (Aunt) This use of the word Pinyin come Aunt attention to China's gold purchasing power can not be underestimated. << >> The Wall Street Journal reported that it is precisely because Aunt, China has You can compete with India affecting the global gold market to become a major force and many people think that 'Aunt' proof of use of the term the greater the influence of a country, the country's language influence will be greater.
China's global influence growth
Language strengthen mutual penetration
Beijing Foreign Studies University, Chinese Language and Literature, Dean Wei Chong new view of this phenomenon in the world is rooted in China's growing influence, including political, economic and cultural aspects.
'As more users came to China in English or in their daily lives in close contact with the Chinese produce, in both English and the language of mutual penetration is a natural trend,' he said.
'In the English translation of an important reason for the difficulty is that the two languages from different language families,' Payack said.
English, from the original Indo-European, and Greek, Latin, Romansh, and so closely related, while Chinese is originated original Sino-Tibetan language, he explained.
24-year-old Canadian student Lisa Hoffman graduated from the Foreign Trade University this year, can speak fluent Mandarin, she said: 'Because the English are two completely different languages, so especially for those people living abroad , want to remember Chinese vocabulary is very difficult. '
'For example, my mother, she does not speak Chinese but also she needs the English word: 'knee' and 'how' to remember Chinese pronunciation of 'Hello', but she can easily remember some words of Chinese origin such as liquor (baijiu), because these words appear frequently in everyday life. 'she said.
(Original title: Dama (Aunt) Tuhao (Tyrant) into hot words